Annual income of less than 9,168 € is not taxed at all. Income tax starts with 14,77% and gradually goes up to 44,31% (top tax rate applies to taxable income of more than 55,960 €). The amounts double for married couples filing joint returns. As your income goes up, the tax rates go up. This happens without any significant jumps in a way that you would suddenly be in a significantly higher tax bracket. The rates go up in increments of 36 € (a sliding scale concept).
A single individual with taxable income (after all deductions) of 80,000 € will end up with a tax rate of 32.73%. A married couple with taxable joint income (after all deductions) of 150,000 € will end up with 31.96%.
You can work out your German annual income tax liability online at https://www.bmf-steuerrechner.de/index.xhtml. You need to enter your taxable income (“zu versteuerndes Einkommen”) after deducting all expenses.